This policy brief feeds into the debate by providing estimates of the gender pay gap in the EU as a whole and across the Member States using the latest available data. The analysis explores variation in gender pay gaps across sectors and occupations, both of which have been shown to influence gender pay differentials. It also identifies how much these and other factors contribute to gender disparities in pay. The relevance of some recent EU-level policies to reducing pay differentials between male and female employees is discussed. The policy brief is linked to the European Jobs Monitor 2021 report, which examines the effect of the rising employment rates of women on the employment structure over the past two decades.